Thou shalt be visited by the Lord of hosts with thunder, and with earthquakes and great noise, with storm and tempest, and the flame of devouring fire (Isaiah 29:6).
On the basis of the opening quote, Isaiah could be considered one of the first disaster epidemiologists. “Disaster” comes from the Latin word astrum, which means star. The ancients believed that earthquakes, volcanoes, and the like were mandated by the heavens. Even today, we do not have much control over these natural disasters, but we do have control over their effects.